Entrepreneurs’ Culture, Networking, Gender and Education Affect Their Exporting: A Cross National Comparison

This study tested hypotheses about the effect of entrepreneurs' networking, gender, education and culture on exporting

Entrepreneurs’ exporting is embedded in their advisory networks, culture, gender and education. The main hypotheses are that networking, gender, education and culture affect exporting in the way that networking affects exporting positively; gender affects exporting, in the way that male have more exporting than female; education affects exporting in the way that educated entrepreneurs have more exporting than less educated entrepreneurs; and culture affects exporting in the way that secular- rational culture benefits exporting more than traditional culture. These hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 23,508 entrepreneurs in 53 countries surveyed in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and national level data on culture from the World Values Survey. Hierarchical linear mixed modeling shows that networking, secular-rational culture and education affect exporting positively while gender has no effect on exporting. Education, secular-rational culture and gender (male) reinforce the effect of networking on exporting.

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